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A Guide to Anatomy

Anatomy is the scientific study of the structure and morphology of living things. This includes human anatomy, animal anatomy or zootomy, and plant anatomy or phytotomy. Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the study of the cellular level or internal structure of plants. Zootomy is classified by animal types, systems, and regions.

Human anatomy is a branch of biology divided into two areas which are gross anatomy or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy includes what can be seen with our vision, or the naked eye. Microscopic anatomy, or histology, includes the study of what we cannot see without the aid of magnification, often a microscope. Microscopic anatomy includes histology which is the study of the organization of tissues and cytology or the study of cells.

Human Anatomy Diagrams and Graphics:
http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html
Graphics and guides to anatomy systems.

http://www.visiblebody.com/
Visible Body has loads of anatomy graphics.

http://www.human-anatomy.net/
Human Anatomy physiology graphics.

The human body is a complex organism made up of billions of microscopic parts. Every cell is individual yet working with others in an orchestrated manner for the benefit of the whole.
These billions of smaller structures are grouped as follows:

Cells
Cells: Cells are the simplest components of living substance that can sustain life and reproduce. The human body starts as a one fertilized cell.

http://www.cellsalive.com/
Cells Alive has colorful graphics and educational animation on cells.

http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_main.html
Learning center for kids with graphics and quizzes.

http://www.kathimitchell.com/cells.html
Fun learning site for kids.

http://www.cell.com/
All about cells.

Tissues
Tissues: A tissue is an organization of an immense number of similar cells.

http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/TissueTissueProducts/QuestionsaboutTissues/ucm101559.htm
Tissue and Tissue Product Questions and Answers

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm
Basic Anatomy: Tissues & Organs

http://thescienceplace.tripod.com/4%20types%20Of%20Tissue%20Outline.htm
The four types of tissue.

Organs
Organs: Organs are organizations of different types of tissues in sets that perform specific purposes.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/organs_anatomy.shtml
Human anatomy chart with clickable learning.

http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec01/ch001/ch001c.html
Graphics on the body's functions and organs.

http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm
Scientific Physic Anatomy and Structure of Human Sense Organs

Human Organs Quiz:
http://www.purposegames.com/game/163
Interactive human organs quiz.

http://www.braingle.com/trivia/22399/organs-in-the-human-body.html
Human organs quiz

http://www.funtrivia.com/quizzes/sci__tech/human_body/mixed_human_body_trivia.html
More human organs quiz links.

Systems: Systems are groups of organs that work together to perform complex functions for the body. There are ten major systems in the human body:

Skeletal Humans are considered vertebrates which mean they have a column or backbone. The skeletal system includes bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons. The bones need oxygen and excrete waste in metabolism. Bones provide a solid rigid framework or skeleton. This supports our bodies allowing us to stand and maintain our forms. The skeleton also protects the soft organs inside such as the brain.

http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/skeletalsystem.html
The skeletal system information and images.

http://www.innerbody.com/image/skelfov.html
The skeletal system from Inner Body.

http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html
Learning about the skeletal system for kids.

http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio105/bone.htm
Labeled graphics and education.

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookmusskel.html
Intricate skeletal and muscular system images with cross section graphics included.

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/skeletalsystem/skeleton/menu/menu.html
Extensive tutorials and quizzes on the skeletal system.

Muscular This system is made up of muscle fibers that are attached to bones, organs, and blood vessels. Muscles are responsible for most all body movement. Interaction between muscles and bones allow us to stand, walk, and run. Skeletal muscles can also control facial expressions, eye movements, and respiration. Muscles also help maintain posture, stability, and heat production. Heat production is required to maintain body temperature and muscles are a vital contributor. They create over 80% of the heat needed by the body.

http://www.innerbody.com/image/musfov.html
The muscular system from Inner Body.

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/muscularsystem/menu/menu.html
Extensive tutorials and quizzes on the muscular system.

http://www.besthealth.com/besthealth/bodyguide/reftext/html/musc_sys_fin.html
Muscular system guide.

http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000123.html
The muscular system from Yucky for kids.

Nervous The nervous system controls, regulates, and communicates mental activity including pain reaction, environment evaluation and response, thought, learning, and memory. The nervous system organs include the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia. Each of these is composed of nerve, blood, and connective tissue. In concert these parts perform the complex activities of the nervous system. The activities of the nervous system are grouped as sensory, integrative, and motor. Sensory receptors detect changes, or stimuli, happening inside and outside the body. These receptors supervise external temperature, light, and sound. They also monitor the internal environment for carbon dioxide concentration, electrolytes levels, pressure variations, and pH. This is known as sensory input which is transformed into electrical signals or nerve impulses that are then sent to the brain. The nervous system reacts to the information and sends signals to our muscles, causing them to react, and to glands so they can produce secretions.

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/nervoussystem/menu/menu.html
Extensive tutorials and quizzes on the nervous system.

http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000136.html
The nervous system from Yucky for kids.

Endocrine This system consists of the glands that are receiving those messages from the nervous system. The endocrine system helps regulate the body. Their effects are short periods, usually seconds, and localized. The endocrine system also performs through chemical messengers called hormones. These hormones influence growth and metabolic activities. These actions can be measured in minutes, hours, or weeks. The two major categories of glands are the exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine glands have ducts that secret sweat to the body’s surface. They also secrete digestive enzymes. Endocrine glands do not have ducts and secret directly into the blood and to influence the cells that have the receptors for the particular hormone.

http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000133.html
The endocrine system from Yucky for kids.

Cardiovascular Also referred to as the blood-vascular, circulatory system this includes the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. Blood is pumped by the heart through a circuit of vessels and passes the diverse circulations of the body. The crucial task of the cardiovascular system in maintaining homeostasis is reliant on the constant and controlled flow of blood. Blood moves through thousands of miles of capillaries that infuse every tissue and get to every cell. The microscopic capillaries transport nutrients and remove waste. There are many control mechanisms in place to regulate and integrate the assorted functions and parts of the cardiovascular system. These instruments ensure a desired internal environment.

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/circulatorysystem/menu/menu.html
Extensive tutorials and quizzes on the cardiovascualr system.

http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000131.html
The cardiovascular system from Yucky for kids.

Lymphatic There are three primary functions of this system. The first is to return excess interstitial fluid to the blood. The second function is to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive system. The third function of the lymphatic system is to defend against any attack of microorganisms and disease. Lymph nodes filter the lymph to eradicate microorganisms and unfamiliar particles. Llymphocytes destroy the invading organisms.

Respiratory This system consist of supplying oxygen for the metabolic processes required for life. The respiratory system works in conjunction with the circulatory system to furnish this oxygen and remove the waste products. Respiration includes breathing and a sequence of events to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the environment and body cells. Breathing is stimulated by nerve impulses to occur every 3 or so seconds to move air in and out of the lungs. The gases are exchanged between the lungs (external respiration) and the blood moves the gases to and from the tissue cells (internal respiration.) The cells use oxygen for their purposes (cellular respiration.) This is the respiratory system which helps to regulate pH of the blood.

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/respiratorysystem/menu/menu.html
Extensive tutorials and quizzes on the respiratory system.

http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000138.html
The respiratory system from Yucky for kids.

Digestive This system is comprised of the digestive tract and associated organs. Food is broken down into molecules that can be absorbed and consumed by cells. The digestive or gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is made up of a long tube that travels from the mouth to the anus. The mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine are all a part of this system. Associate organs include the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. These organs supply fluids for the digestive tract through secretion. There are three process involved in this system including digestion, absorption, and elimination.

http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/
How the digestive system works.

http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000126.html
The digestive system from Yucky for kids.

Urinary This system maintains the amount and composition of body fluids. Because one function is to rid the body of waste products it is also referred to as the excretory system. There are other organs in the excretory business. Lungs excrete waste such as carbon dioxide and water, skin rids the body of wastes through the sweat glands and the liver and intestines excrete bile pigments. The body depends on the urinary system however, for the majority of fluid disposal. The urinary system also controls red blood cell production and helps maintain normal blood pressure.

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/urinarysystem/menu/menu.html

http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000128.html
The urinary system from Yucky for kids.

Reproductive This system is made up of the male and female sex organs to ensure survival of the species. The four functions are to produce egg and sperm cells, transport and sustain the cells, nurture the offspring, and produce hormones.

http://www.besthealth.com/besthealth/bodyguide/reftext/html/repr_sys_fin.html
Best Health body guide to reproductive system.

Human anatomy includes regional divisions of the body for study that include:

Head and neck
http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/labs/headneck.htm
Laboratory dissections

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~anatomy/Regions/h&n-index.htm
Learning module from Dartmouth.

http://www.instantanatomy.net/headneck.html
Images

Upper limb – the hand, wrist, forearm, elbow, arm, and shoulder http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/labs/upperex.htm
Laboratory dissections

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~anatomy/Regions/ue-index.htm
Learning module from Dartmouth.


Thorax
http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/labs/thorax.htm
Laboratory dissections

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~anatomy/Regions/th-index.htm
Learning module from Dartmouth.

http://www.instantanatomy.net/thorax.html
Images

Abdomen
http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/labs/abdomen.htm
Laboratory dissections

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~anatomy/Regions/ab-index.htm
Learning module from Dartmouth.

Back or Spine
http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/labs/back.htm
Laboratory dissections

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~anatomy/Regions/ba-index.htm
Learning module from Dartmouth.

Pelvis and Perineum
http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/labs/pelvis.htm
Laboratory dissections

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~anatomy/Regions/pel-index.htm
Learning module from Dartmouth.

Lower limb – includes the hip, the thigh, the knee, the leg, the ankle, and the foot. http://ect.downstate.edu/courseware/haonline/labs/lowerex.htm
Laboratory dissections

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~anatomy/Regions/le-index.htm
Learning module from Dartmouth.

The history of human anatomy has been developed by advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers and now technologically such as the X-ray, ultrasound, and MRI imaging. Human anatomy education is required for doctors, nurses, surgeons, chiropractors, physical therapists, medical researchers, forensic specialists, medicine, and other health related fields. Basic education in human anatomy usually begins with the study of human body functions and life process, the major human body systems and functions, and the anatomical locations, structures and physiological functions of the components of the major systems of the human body.

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